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I think the math isn't that bad since you you have polargraphs working well on arduino.
here is a post describing the trig: http://www.buildlog.net/blog/2015/01/the-bipolar-ord-bot/
Stm32 is a good platform also.
I was looking at this in combination with something like a AS5311 for a closed loop system powerd by some high torque gear motors which don't have to deal with backlash due to the sensor... something like a GM4058-31ZY.
have you done the math on what advantage you can get with this design? I also have some 6005RS bearings unused I may try with.