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If you will dig deep in the comments, you will find out that Sobo84 already had this issue. It is called inductance, and it is not that simple as going from 12V to 24V as actually the voltage of the motor have nothing in common with PSU voltage.
For eg. Nema17 motors have some rated voltage of around 2.5-5.0V but they are perfectly capable of 12V, 24V, 36V and even more, if your electronics, especially stepper drivers can survive it. Actually more volts, the better, as you can utilise more amps and thanks to it, get more speed, torque and that means better precision with higher and stable microstepping. And it is the property of coil inductance. It have a drawback though and that is the resistance that causes heating of motor. While Nemas can be cooled quite well with 28BYJ-48 it is not that simple.
Now the properties of 5V and 12V 28BYJ-48 are way different. The inductance and resistance of 12V version makes it hardly usable. You can try higher voltage but there is no guarantee it will work well.